What is Card Sorting?

Card sorting is a user-centered design technique used to help designers and information architects understand how users perceive and categorize information. This method involves participants organizing topics into categories that make sense to them, using cards that each represent a piece of content or functionality. Card sorting can be conducted either physically with actual cards or virtually using online tools. The goal is to create or improve information architecture, navigation paths, and menu structure to enhance user experience on websites and applications.

Importance of Card Sorting

Enhances Information Architecture

Card sorting provides direct insights into how users expect to find information or functionalities within a system. These insights are used to structure or restructure the website’s information architecture, making it more logical and user-friendly based on user expectations.

Improves Usability

By organizing content in a way that reflects the users’ mental models, card sorting helps enhance the usability of a website or application. This alignment between user expectations and the site structure reduces confusion and improves navigation efficiency.

Facilitates Better Content Grouping

Card sorting helps identify patterns in how users group content, which can be pivotal in designing more intuitive interfaces and content categorization strategies. This is particularly useful for large sites with extensive content, helping ensure that all information is easy to find and access.

Engages Stakeholders

Card sorting involves various stakeholders, including potential users and team members, in the design process. This collaborative approach not only enriches the data gathered but also increases buy-in and support from different parts of an organization.

Strategies for Conducting Effective Card Sorting

Choose the Right Type of Card Sorting

There are two main types of card sorting: open and closed. In open card sorting, participants create and name their own categories. In closed card sorting, participants sort items into predefined categories. Choose the type based on whether you need to create a new structure or validate an existing one.

Prepare Clear and Concise Cards

Each card should represent a single item or concept clearly and concisely. Avoid technical jargon unless it is familiar to the user group. The clarity of the cards directly impacts the quality of the results.

Use an Appropriate Number of Participants

While card sorting can be done with just a few users, using a broader range of participants can provide more comprehensive insights. Typically, 15-20 participants are sufficient to identify common patterns and categorizations.

Analyze the Results Thoroughly

Once the sorting is complete, analyze the data to identify trends and commonalities among the groupings. Look for consistent categories and outlier data that might provide additional insights.

Iterate Based on Feedback

The findings from a card sorting session are not final but should be tested with real users on the actual site or application. Iterative testing and refinement based on user feedback ensure that the structure meets user needs effectively.


Card sorting is a valuable method for gaining insights into user thought processes and improving information architecture and navigation schemes. By understanding how users categorize and find information, designers and developers can create more intuitive and user-friendly websites and applications. This technique not only enhances usability but also ensures that the end product aligns well with user expectations and behaviors.